Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation

Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. As such, the information included in this Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. The condensed consolidated results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020, or any other future annual or interim period. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts or balances to conform to the presentation adopted in the current year.

Use of Estimates

Conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical information and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments in several areas. Such areas include, but are not limited to: the collectability of accounts receivable; the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory; the realizability of deferred tax assets; the fair value of goodwill; the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements; the useful lives of intangibles assets and property and equipment; our loss contingencies, including our TRA liability; and the valuation and assumptions underlying equity-based compensation. These estimates are based on management's knowledge about current events and expectations about actions we may undertake in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") a global pandemic. We expect uncertainties around our key accounting estimates to continue to evolve depending on the duration and degree of impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information emerges, and such changes are recognized or disclosed in our consolidated financial statements.

Assets Held for Sale

We generally consider assets to be held for sale when (i) we commit to a plan to sell the assets, (ii) the assets are available for immediate sale in their present condition, (iii) we have initiated an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the assets, (iv) consummation of the planned sale transaction is probable, (v) the assets are being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to their current fair value, (vi) the transaction is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year, and (vii) significant changes to or withdrawal of the plan is unlikely. Following the classification of any depreciable assets within a disposal group as held for sale, we discontinue depreciating the asset and write down the asset to the lower of carrying value or fair market value less cost to sell, if needed. As described in Note 4—Leases and Note 7—Supplemental Financial Statement Information, we have taken actions that have caused certain property and equipment and right-of-use assets to meet the relevant criteria for classification and reporting as held for sale.

Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate it is more likely than not that the carrying amount is not recoverable. Estimating the fair value of a reporting unit for goodwill impairment is highly sensitive to changes in projections and assumptions. Ultimately, potential changes in these assumptions may impact the estimated fair value of a reporting unit and result in an impairment if the fair value of such reporting unit is less than its carrying value.
Due to market conditions and estimated adverse impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, management concluded that a triggering event occurred in the first quarter of 2020, requiring a quantitative impairment test of our goodwill for our United States and Europe reporting units. Based on this assessment, we concluded that the fair value of our Europe reporting unit exceeded its carrying value and no impairment charge was required. However, the estimated fair value of our United States reporting unit was determined to be below its carrying value, which resulted in a $9.0 million goodwill impairment during the first quarter of 2020. This impairment charge resulted from the impacts of COVID-19 on our current and forecasted wholesale revenues and the restrictions on certain products we sell imposed by the Federal Drug Administration's ("FDA") Enforcement
Priorities for Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems ("ENDS") and Other Deemed Products on the Market Without Premarket Authorization ("ENDS Enforcement Guidance"), which resulted in changes to our estimates and assumptions of the expected future cash flows of the United States reporting unit.
No additional impairment charges were recognized during the third quarter of 2020. We will continue to monitor the significant global economic uncertainty as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including its duration and severity, the extent of its disruption on our operations, and the changes in our mitigation strategies, which may lead to additional impairment charges in future reporting periods.
Changes in the carrying amount of our goodwill by reporting unit for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 were as follows:
(in thousands) U.S. Canada Europe Total
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 8,996  $ —  $ 2,986  $ 11,982 
Goodwill impairment charge (8,996) —  —  (8,996)
Foreign currency translation adjustment —  —  142  142 
Balance at September 30, 2020 $ —  $ —  $ 3,128  $ 3,128 

Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when customers obtain control of goods and services promised by us. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services, reduced by promotional discounts and estimates for return allowances and refunds. Taxes collected from customers for remittance to governmental authorities are excluded from net sales.

We generate revenue primarily from the sale of finished products to customers, whereby each product unit represents a single performance obligation. We recognize revenue from product sales when the customer has obtained control of the products, which is either upon shipment from one of our fulfillment centers or upon delivery to the customer, depending upon the specific terms and conditions of the arrangement, or at the point of sale for our retail store sales. We provide no warranty on products sold. Product warranty is provided by the manufacturers.

Our performance obligations for services are satisfied when the services are rendered within the arranged service period. Total service revenue is not material and accounted for less than 0.1% of revenues for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

Beginning with the first quarter of 2020, we entered into a limited number of bill-and-hold arrangements. Each bill-and-hold arrangement is reviewed and revenue is recognized only when certain criteria have been met: (i) the customer has requested delayed delivery and storage of the products by us, in exchange for a storage fee, because they want to secure a supply of the products but lack storage space, (ii) the risk of ownership has passed to the customer, (iii) the products are segregated from our other inventory items held for sale, (iv) the products are ready for shipment to the customer, and (v) the products are customized and thus we do not have the ability to use the products or direct them to another customer. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recorded $0.5 million and $1.5 million of revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements, respectively. We did not recognize any revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019. Storage fees charged to customers for bill-and-hold arrangements are recognized as invoiced. Such fees were not significant for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.

For certain product offerings such as premium, patented, child-resistant packaging, closed-system vaporization solutions and custom-branded retail products, we generally receive a deposit from the customer (generally 50% of the total order cost, but the amount can vary by customer contract) when an order is placed by a customer. We typically complete these orders within one to three months from the date of order, depending on the complexity of the customization and the size of the order. See “Note 7—Supplemental Financial Statement Information” for a summary of changes to our customer deposits liability balance during the nine months ended September 30, 2020.

We estimate product returns based on historical experience and record them as a refund liability that reduces the net sales for the period. We analyze actual historical returns, current economic trends and changes in order volume when evaluating the adequacy of our sales returns allowance in any reporting period. Our liability for returns, which is included within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.7 million and $0.6 million at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers, which is included within "Other current assets" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.2 million and $0.3 million as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
We elected to account for shipping and handling expenses that occur after the customer has obtained control of products as a fulfillment activity in cost of sales. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in net sales upon completion of our performance obligations. We apply the practical expedient provided for by ASC 606 by not adjusting the transaction price for significant financing components for periods less than one year. We also apply the practical expedient provided by ASC 606 based upon which we generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is one year or less. Sales commissions are recorded within "Salaries, benefits and payroll tax expenses" in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

No single customer represented more than 10% of our net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. We had one customer that represented approximately 10.7% of our accounts receivable balance as of September 30, 2020. No other customer represented more than 10% of our accounts receivable balance as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Federal Drug Administration's ENDS Enforcement Guidance and Premarket Tobacco Product Applications
In January 2020, the FDA issued ENDS Enforcement Guidance, which outlines the FDA's intent to prioritize enforcement against flavored, cartridge-based ENDS products (except tobacco or menthol flavored products), all other ENDS products for which the manufacturer has failed to take adequate measures to prevent access to minors, and any ENDS products targeted to minors or whose marketing is likely to promote usage by minors. Additionally, the deadline for ENDS manufacturers to submit Premarket Tobacco Product Applications ("PMTA") was September 9, 2020. The FDA also intends to prioritize any ENDS products offered for sale after September 9, 2020 for which the manufacturer has not submitted a PMTA. The FDA is not necessarily bound by these enforcement priorities, and it has recently taken actions against other products and may take additional actions against other products as warranted by circumstances.
The ENDS Enforcement Guidance had the effect of prohibiting the sale of certain products in the United States, including mint-flavored products from JUUL Labs and other flavored ENDS, starting February 2020. Products impacted by the ENDS Enforcement Guidance represented less than 0.1% of our net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and approximately 19.7% and 17.2% of our net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, respectively.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we sold products for which the manufacturers have not submitted a PMTA to the FDA by September 9, 2020. Sales of these products represented approximately 0.4% and 0.8% of our net sales for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
While we have been compliant with and expect to remain in compliance with the ENDS Enforcement Guidance, further actions and developments of FDA's guidance could adversely affect our sales of ENDS products and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Value Added Taxes

During the third quarter of 2020, as part of a global tax strategy review, we determined that our European subsidiaries based in the Netherlands, which we acquired on September 30, 2019, had historically collected and remitted value added tax ("VAT") payments, which related to direct-to-consumer sales to other European Union ("EU") member states, directly to the Dutch tax authorities. Accordingly, we performed an analysis of the VAT overpayments to the Dutch tax authorities, which we expect will be refunded to us, and VAT payable to other EU member states, including potential fines and penalties. Based on this analysis, we recorded a VAT payable of approximately $7.6 million within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" and VAT receivable of approximately $4.5 million within "Other current assets", in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2020.

Pursuant to the purchase and sale agreement by which we acquired our European subsidiaries, the sellers are required to indemnify us against certain specified matters and losses, including any and all liabilities, claims, penalties and costs incurred or sustained by us in connection with non-compliance with tax laws in relation to activities of the sellers. The indemnity is limited to an amount equal to the purchase price under the purchase and sale agreement. Furthermore, we are the beneficiary to a bank guarantee in the amount of approximately $0.9 million for claims for which we are entitled to indemnification under the purchase and sale agreement. The bank guarantee has an expiration date of October 1, 2021. Accordingly, as of September 30, 2020, we recognized an indemnification asset of approximately $0.9 million within "Other current assets" using the loss recovery model, as management believes that amounts covered by the bank guarantee are probable of recovery.

Management intends to pursue recovery of all additional losses from the sellers to the full extent of the indemnification provisions of the purchase and sale agreement, however, the collectability of such additional indemnification amounts may be subject to litigation and may be affected by the credit risk of indemnifying parties, and are therefore subject to significant uncertainties as to the amount and timing of recovery. Therefore, during the three months ended September 30, 2020, we recognized a charge of approximately $2.2 million within general and administrative expenses in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represents the difference between the VAT payable and the VAT receivable and indemnification asset recorded as of September 30, 2020.
We establish VAT receivables in jurisdictions where VAT paid exceeds VAT collected and are recoverable through the filing of refund claims. Our VAT receivable balance as of September 30, 2020 relates to refund claims with the Dutch tax authorities. We intend to voluntarily disclose VAT owed to the relevant tax authorities in the EU member states and believe in doing so we will reduce our liability for penalties and interest. Nonetheless, we may incur expenses in future periods related to such matters, including litigation costs and other expenses to defend our position. The outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.

Refer to "Note 6—Commitments and Contingencies" for additional discussion regarding our contingencies.

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. We adopted this standard prospectively beginning January 1, 2020. Adoption of this new standard did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2022 for filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC's definition. Early adoption is permitted. We do not believe the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued No. ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This update will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently assessing the impact, if any, the guidance will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarifies the interaction of the accounting for equity securities under Topic 321, the accounting for equity method investments in Topic 323, and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options in Topic 815. This update will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently assessing the impact, if any, the guidance will have on our consolidated financial statements.