Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation

Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting.

Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. As such, the information included in this Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date.

The condensed consolidated results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2021, or any other future annual or interim period. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts or balances to conform to the presentation adopted in the current year.

Use of Estimates

Conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical information and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments in several areas. Such areas include, but are not limited to: the collectability of accounts receivable; the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory; the realizability of deferred tax assets; the fair value of goodwill; the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements; the useful lives of intangibles assets
and property and equipment; the calculation of our VAT receivable and VAT payable, including fines and penalties payable; our loss contingencies, including our TRA liability; and the valuation and assumptions underlying equity-based compensation. These estimates are based on management's knowledge about current events and expectations about actions we may undertake in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.

Update on COVID-19

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization recognized the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") as a global pandemic, prompting many national, regional, and local governments, including those in the markets that the Company operates in, to implement preventative or protective measures, such as travel and business restrictions, temporary store closures, and wide-sweeping quarantines and stay-at-home orders. As a result, COVID-19 significantly curtailed global economic activity, including in the industries in which we operate.

While the U.S. has recently seen a decline in new cases and states are loosening their shutdown and social distancing protocols, resulting in a wide reopening of adult recreational use and medical stores as well as other retail stores that the Company sells to, our sources of revenue continue to be affected by COVID-19, especially with the rise of new variants.

We continue to be impacted by business and supply chain disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the pandemic has resulted in increased air freight costs incurred by us, as well as general difficulties in securing space on incoming freight from international vendors in order to make room for essential items. We continue to experience unexpected and uncontrollable delays with our international supply shipments due to a significant increase in shipments to U.S. ports, less cargo being shipped by air, and a general shortage of containers. We, along with many other importers of goods across all industries, continue to experience severe congestion and extensive wait times for carriers at ports across the United States. While we have been working diligently with our network of freight partners and suppliers to expedite delivery dates and provide solutions to reduce further impact and delays, we are unable to determine the full impact of these delays as they are outside our control. Additionally, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration introduced a rule requiring certain employers to mandate vaccinations or conduct weekly COVID-19 test on unvaccinated employees. These requirements could result in employee attrition if employees choose not to provide proof of vaccination or submit to COVID-19 testing.

Overall, while we are continuing to navigate the financial, operational, and personnel challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the full extent of its impact on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, the potential uncertainty related to and proliferation of new strains, and related actions taken by the U.S., international and state and local governments to prevent the spread of disease, all of which are uncertain, outside our control, and cannot be predicted at this time.

We expect uncertainties around our key accounting estimates to continue to evolve depending on the duration and degree of impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information emerges, and such changes are recognized or disclosed in our condensed consolidated financial statements.


Goodwill represents the excess of the price we paid over the fair value of the net identifiable assets we acquired in business combinations. In accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, we review goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level annually or, when events or circumstances dictate, more frequently. The impairment review for goodwill consists of a qualitative assessment of whether it is more-likely-than-not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, and if necessary, a quantitative goodwill impairment test. Factors to consider when performing the qualitative assessment include general economic conditions, limitations on accessing capital, changes in forecasted operating results and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. If the qualitative assessment demonstrates that it is more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, it is not necessary to measure and record impairment loss. We may elect to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceed directly to the quantitative assessment, for any reporting unit, in any period. We can resume the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any subsequent period.

When we perform a quantitative impairment test, we use a combination of an income approach, a discounted cash flow valuation approach, and a market approach, using the guideline public company method, to determine the fair value of each reporting unit, and then compare the fair value to its carrying amount to determine the amount of impairment, if any. If a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, we record an impairment charge based on that difference, up to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.

The quantitative impairment test requires the application of a number of significant assumptions, including estimated projections of future revenue growth rates, EBITDA margins, terminal value growth rates, market multiples, discount rates, and foreign currency exchange rates. The projections of future cash flows used to assess the fair value of the reporting units are based on the internal operation plans reviewed by management. The market multiples are based on comparable public company
multiples. The discount rates are based on the risk-free rate of interest and estimated risk premiums for the reporting units at the time the impairment analysis is prepared. The projections of future exchange rates are based on the current exchange rates at the time the projections are prepared. if the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, no further analysis or write-down of goodwill is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of its net assets, the implied fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all its underlying assets and liabilities, including both recognized and unrecognized tangible and intangible assets, based on their fair value. If necessary, goodwill is then written down to its implied fair value.

Due to market conditions and estimated adverse impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, management concluded that a triggering event occurred in the first quarter of 2020, requiring a quantitative impairment test of our goodwill for our United States and Europe reporting units. Based on this assessment, we concluded that the estimated fair value of our United States reporting unit was determined to be below its carrying value, which resulted in a $9.0 million goodwill impairment charge for the three months ended March 31, 2020. This impairment charge resulted from the impacts of COVID-19 on our current and forecasted wholesale revenues and the restrictions on certain products we sell imposed by the Federal Drug Administration ("FDA") Enforcement Priorities for Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems ("ENDS") and Other Deemed Products on the Market Without Premarket Authorization ("ENDS Enforcement Guidance'), which resulted in changes to our estimates and assumptions of the expected future cash flows of the United States reporting unit.

We recognized no goodwill impairment charges during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. See "Note 3—Business Acquisitions" for discussion of goodwill recognized during 2021 related to the Eyce LLC acquisition and KushCo merger. The assignment of goodwill recognized from the KushCo merger to reporting units has not yet been completed as of the date of these financial statements. We expect to make a determination relating to the application of the segment reporting disclosure requirements applicable to KushCo during the fourth quarter of 2021.

Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when customers obtain control of goods and services promised by us. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services, reduced by promotional discounts and estimates for return allowances and refunds. Taxes collected from customers for remittance to governmental authorities are excluded from net sales.

We generate revenue primarily from the sale of finished products to customers, whereby each product unit represents a single performance obligation. We recognize revenue from product sales when the customer has obtained control of the products, which is either upon shipment from one of our fulfillment centers or upon delivery to the customer, depending upon the specific terms and conditions of the arrangement, or at the point of sale for our retail store sales. We provide no warranty on products sold. Product warranty is provided by the manufacturers.

Our performance obligations for services are satisfied when the services are rendered within the arranged service period. Service revenue was de minimis for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020.

Beginning with the first quarter of 2020, we entered into a limited number of bill-and-hold arrangements. Each bill-and-hold arrangement is reviewed and revenue is recognized only when certain criteria have been met: (i) the customer has requested delayed delivery and storage of the products by us, in exchange for a storage fee, because they want to secure a supply of the products but lack storage space, (ii) the risk of ownership has passed to the customer, (iii) the products are segregated from our other inventory items held for sale, (iv) the products are ready for shipment to the customer, and (v) the products are customized and thus we do not have the ability to use the products or direct them to another customer. Revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements was $0.2 million and $0.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, and $0.5 million and $1.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. Storage fees charged to customers for bill-and-hold arrangements are recognized as invoiced. Such fees were not significant for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020.

For certain product offerings such as premium, patented, child-resistant packaging, closed-system vaporization solutions and custom-branded retail products, we may receive a deposit from the customer (generally 25% - 50% of the total order cost, but the amount can vary by customer contract) when an order is placed by a customer. We typically complete these orders within one to six months from the date of order, depending on the complexity of the customization and the size of the order, but the completion timeline can vary by product type and terms of sales with each customer. See “Note 8—Supplemental Financial Statement Information” for a summary of changes to our customer deposits liability balance during the nine months ended September 30, 2021.

We estimate product returns based on historical experience and record them as a refund liability that reduces the net sales for the period. We analyze actual historical returns, current economic trends and changes in order volume when evaluating the adequacy of our sales returns allowance in any reporting period. Our liability for returns, which is included within "Accrued
expenses and other current liabilities" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $1.1 million and $0.8 million as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers, which is included within "Other current assets" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.2 million as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

We elected to account for shipping and handling expenses that occur after the customer has obtained control of products as a fulfillment activity in cost of sales. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in net sales upon completion of our performance obligations. We apply the practical expedient provided for by the applicable revenue recognition guidance by not adjusting the transaction price for significant financing components for periods less than one year. We also apply the practical expedient provided by the applicable revenue recognition guidance based upon which we generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is one year or less. Sales commissions are recorded within "Salaries, benefits and payroll tax expenses" in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

No single customer represented more than 10% of our net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020. As of September 30, 2021, only one customer customer represented more than 10% of our accounts receivable balance, totaling 15% of the net, accounts receivable balance.
Value Added Taxes

During the third quarter of 2020, as part of a global tax strategy review, we determined that our European subsidiaries based in the Netherlands, which we acquired on September 30, 2019, had historically collected and remitted value added tax ("VAT") payments, which related to direct-to-consumer sales to other European Union ("EU") member states, directly to the Dutch tax authorities. In connection with our subsidiaries' payment of VAT to Dutch tax authorities rather than other EU member states, the German government has commenced a criminal investigation, which could result in penalties; other jurisdictions could commence such investigations as well.

We performed an analysis of the VAT overpayments to the Dutch tax authorities, which we expect will be refunded to us, and VAT payable to other EU member states, including potential fines and penalties. Based on this analysis, we recorded VAT payable of approximately $3.1 million and $9.9 million within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" and VAT receivable of approximately $0.1 million and $4.4 million within "Other current assets" in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

We established VAT receivables in jurisdictions where VAT paid exceeds VAT collected and are recoverable through the filing of refund claims. Our VAT receivable balance as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 relates to refund claims with the Dutch tax authorities. In April 2021, we received a refund from the Dutch tax authorities of approximately $4.1 million.

Pursuant to the purchase and sale agreement by which we acquired our European subsidiaries, the sellers are required to indemnify us against certain specified matters and losses, including any and all liabilities, claims, penalties and costs incurred or sustained by us in connection with non-compliance with tax laws in relation to activities of the sellers. The indemnity (or indemnification receivable) is limited to an amount equal to the purchase price under the purchase and sale agreement. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we recognized an indemnification asset of approximately $0.1 million and $0.9 million within "Other current assets" using the loss recovery model. We were beneficiaries of a bank guarantee in the amount of approximately $0.9 million for claims for which we are entitled to indemnification under the purchase and sale agreement, which we collected in April 2021. In April 2021, we entered into a settlement agreement with the sellers of Conscious Wholesale requiring the transfer of approximately $0.8 million in cash from the sellers' bank accounts, which we also collected in April 2021. In May 2021, we entered into another settlement with the sellers to place 650,604 shares of our Class A common stock owned by the sellers in escrow, which requires that those securities be sold as necessary to pay additional liabilities of the seller to us under the purchase and sale agreement.

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recognized a charge of approximately $2.2 million within "general and administrative" expenses in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represented the difference between the VAT payable and the VAT receivable and indemnification asset recorded as of September 30, 2020. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, we recognized a gain of approximately $0 and $1.7 million within "general and administrative expenses" in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represented the partial reversal of the previously recognized charge, as the indemnification asset became probable of recovery based on the settlement agreements with the sellers and the related amounts collected from the sellers, and a reduction in our previously estimated VAT liability for penalties and interest based on our voluntary disclosure to, and ongoing settlement with, the relevant tax authorities in the EU member states.

Management intends to pursue recovery of all additional losses from the sellers to the full extent of the indemnification provisions of the purchase and sale agreement, however, the collectability of such additional indemnification amounts may be subject to litigation and may be affected by the credit risk of indemnifying parties, and are therefore subject to significant uncertainties as to the amount and timing of recovery.
As noted above, we have voluntarily disclosed VAT owed to several relevant tax authorities in the EU member states, and believe in doing so we will reduce our liability for penalties and interest. Nonetheless, we may incur expenses in future periods related to such matters, including litigation costs and other expenses to defend our position. The outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.

Refer to "Note 7—Commitments and Contingencies" for additional discussion regarding our contingencies.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This update was effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarifies the interaction of accounting for equity securities under Topic 321, the accounting for equity investments in Topic 323, and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options in Topic 815. We adopted this guidance beginning January 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (ASU 2020-06), which addresses the measurement and disclosure requirements for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity's own equity. The new standard simplifies and adds disclosure requirements for the accounting and measurement of convertible instruments and the settlement assessment for contracts in an entity's own equity. This pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2021. We elected to early adopt the new standard beginning January 1, 2021, on a modified retrospective basis. Adoption of this standard did not impact our condensed consolidated financial statements, as we did not hold any instruments to which this standard was applicable during the current reporting period nor in earlier reporting periods.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2022 for filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC's definition. Early adoption is permitted. We do not believe the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides practical expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The expedients and exceptions provided by the amendments in this update apply only to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued as a result of reference rate reform. These amendments are not applicable to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into or evaluated after December 31, 2022. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, which clarified the scope and application of the original guidance. ASU No. 2020-04 and ASU No. 2021-01 are effective as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and may be applied to contract modifications and hedging relationships from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020. We are still evaluating the impact these standards will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which requires that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606, as if it had originated the contracts. Prior to this ASU, an acquirer generally recognizes contract assets acquired and contract liabilities assumed that arose from contracts with customers at fair value on the acquisition date. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The ASU is to be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendment (or if adopted early as of an interim period, as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of early application). We are still assessing this standard’s impact on our consolidated financial statements.