Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationOur audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-K and Article 8 of Regulation S-X.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts, the accounts of the Operating Company, and the accounts of the Operating Company's consolidated subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Our principal sources of liquidity at December, 31 2021 consisted of cash on hand, future cash anticipated to be generated from operations, and our ATM Program described below.
In August 2021, we established an "at-the-market" equity offering program (the "ATM Program") that provides for the sale of shares of our Class A common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50 million, from time to time. Net proceeds from sales of our shares of Class A common stock under the ATM Program are expected to be used to fund potential business acquisitions and for working capital and general corporate purposes. Since the launch of the ATM program and through March 28, 2022, we sold 11,685,970 shares of our Class A common stock under the ATM Program, which generated gross proceeds of approximately $9.4 million.

In December 2021, we entered into the Bridge Loan with Aaron LoCascio, our co-founder, former Chief Executive Officer and President, and a current director of the Company, in which Mr. LoCascio provided us with a loan in the principal amount of $8.0 million. Accrued interest at a rate of 15.0% is due monthly, and principal amount is due in full in June 2022. The Bridge Loan is secured by a continuing security interest in all of our assets and properties whether then or thereafter existing or required, including our inventory and receivables (as defined under the Universal Commercial Code) and includes negative
covenants restricting our ability to incur further indebtedness and engage in certain asset dispositions until the earlier of June 30, 2022 or the Bridge Loan has been fully repaid.

We also have an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 and may opportunistically conduct securities offerings from time to time in order to meet our liquidity needs. However, we may be unable to access the capital markets because of current market volatility and the performance of our stock price

We are in the process of securing an asset backed loan to assist us with working capital needs. However, we can provide no assurances as to the timing of our entry into this loan or that we will enter into it at all. We believe that our cash on hand, combined with our ability to access the capital markets, will be sufficient to fund our working capital and capital expenditure requirements, as well as our debt repayments and other liquidity requirements associated with our existing operations, for at least the next 12 months.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
Conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical information and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments in several areas. Such areas include, but are not limited to: the collectability of accounts receivable; the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory; the realizability of deferred tax assets; the fair value of goodwill; the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements; the useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment; the calculation of our VAT taxes receivable and VAT taxes, fines, and penalties payable; our loss contingencies, including our TRA liability; and the valuation and assumptions underlying equity-based compensation. These estimates are based on management's knowledge about current events and expectations about actions we may undertake in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") a global pandemic. We expect uncertainties around our key accounting estimates to continue to evolve depending on the duration and degree of impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including the possible resurgence of new strains. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information emerges, and such changes are recognized or disclosed in our consolidated financial statements.
Segment Reporting Segment ReportingWe manage our global business operations through our operating and reportable business segments. Due to our recent merger with KushCo, we reassessed and updated our operating segments. Therefore, as of December 31, 2021, we had two reportable operating business segments: Industrial Goods, which largely comprises KushCo's legacy operations, and Consumer Goods, which largely comprises Greenlane's legacy operations across the United States, Canada, and Europe. Our reportable segments have been identified based on how our chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), which is a committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and our Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), manage our business, make resource allocation and operating decisions, and evaluate operating performance.
Business Combinations Business CombinationsOur business combinations are accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). Under the acquisition method, we recognize 100% of the assets we acquire and liabilities we assume, regardless of the percentage we own, at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets and other identifiable intangible assets we acquire is recorded as goodwill. To the extent the fair value of the net assets we acquire, including other identifiable assets, exceeds the purchase price, a bargain purchase gain is recognized. The assets we acquire, and liabilities we assume from contingencies, are recognized at fair value if we can readily determine the fair value during the measurement period. The operating results of businesses we acquire are included in our consolidated statement of operations from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.
Equity-Based Compensation
Equity-Based Compensation
We account for equity-based compensation grants of equity awards to employees in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation. This standard requires us to measure compensation expense based on the estimated fair value of share-based awards on the grant date and recognize as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. We estimate the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes model on the grant date. The Black-Scholes model requires us to use several variables to estimate the grant-date fair value of our equity-based compensation
awards including expected term, expected volatility and risk-free interest rates. Our equity-based compensation costs are recognized using a graded vesting schedule. For liability-classified awards, we record fair value adjustments up to and including the settlement date. Changes in the fair value of our equity-based compensation liability that occur during the requisite service period are recognized as compensation cost over the vesting period. Changes in the fair value of the equity-based compensation liability that occur after the end of the requisite service period but before settlement, are recognized as compensation cost of the period in which the change occurs. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Loss Contingencies
Loss Contingencies
Certain conditions may exist which may result in a loss to us, but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. Management assesses such contingent liabilities and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against us, or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, we evaluate the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought therein.

If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability is estimable, the liability would be accrued in our consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potentially material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.

Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed. Unasserted claims that are not considered probable of being asserted and those for which an unfavorable outcome is not reasonably possible have not been disclosed.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements
We apply the provisions of ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for its measurement and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price we would receive for an asset or an exit price we would pay to transfer a liability in the principal, or most advantageous, market for our asset or liability in an orderly transaction with a market participant on the measurement date. We determine the fair market values of our financial instruments based on the fair value hierarchy, which requires us to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The following three levels of inputs may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1        Observable inputs such as unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
Level 2        Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3        Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and short-term debt, are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of their short-term nature. The fair value of our long-term debt is the estimated amount we would have to pay to repurchase the debt, inclusive of any premium or discount attributable to the difference between the stated interest rate and market rate of interest at each balance sheet date. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the carrying amount of our long-term debt approximated its fair value. On a recurring basis, we measure and record contingent consideration and our interest-rate swap arrangement using fair value measurements in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. See “Note 4—Fair Value of Financial Instruments.”
We also own equity securities of private entities, which do not have readily determinable fair values. We elected to measure these equity securities at cost minus impairment, if any. At each reporting period, we make a qualitative assessment considering impairment indicators to evaluate whether our investment is impaired. The equity securities are adjusted to fair value when an observable price change can be identified.
For purposes of reporting cash flows, we consider cash on hand, checking accounts, and savings accounts to be cash. We also consider all highly-liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. We place our cash with high credit quality financial institutions, which provide insurance through the Federal Deposit Insurance Company. At times, the balance in our accounts may exceed federal insured limits. We perform periodic
evaluations of the relative credit standing of these institutions and do not expect any losses related to such concentrations. As of December 31, 2021, and 2020, approximately $0.7 million and $2.3 million, respectively, of our cash balances were in foreign bank accounts and uninsured.
Accounts Receivable, net Accounts Receivable, netAccounts receivable represent amounts due from customers for merchandise sales and are recorded when revenue is earned and are carried at the original invoiced amount less an allowance for any potentially uncollectible amounts. An account is considered past due when payment has not been rendered by its due date based upon the terms of the sale. Generally, accounts receivable are due 30 days after the billing date. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to reserve for potentially uncollectible receivable amounts. In evaluating our ability to collect outstanding receivable balances, we consider various factors including the age of the balance, the creditworthiness of the customer, the customer's current financial condition, current economic conditions, and other factors that may affect our ability to collect from customers. We write off accounts as uncollectible on a case-by-case basis. We pledge accounts receivable as collateral for our Bridge Loan,
Inventories, net
Inventories, net
Inventories consist of finished goods that we value at the lower of cost or net realizable value on a weighted average cost basis for the majority of the inventory. We established an allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory based upon assumptions about future demands and market conditions. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, the reserve for obsolescence was approximately $21.3 million and $1.6 million, respectively. We pledge inventory as collateral for our Bridge Loan, see “Note 6— Debt.”
Vendor Deposits
Vendor Deposits
Vendor deposits represent prepayments we make to vendors for inventory purchases. A significant number of vendors require us to prepay for inventory purchases.
Customs Bonds
Customs Bonds
The Company is required to obtain customs bonds to import goods into the United States to provide security for payment of duties, taxes and other fees incurred as a result of importing goods. Customs bonds are included in "Other current assets" in our consolidated balance sheets, see "Note 8 - Supplemental Financial Statement Information."
Assets Held for Sale and Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Assets Held for Sale

We generally consider assets to be held for sale when (i) we commit to a plan to sell the assets, (ii) the assets are available for immediate sale in their present condition, (iii) we have initiated an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the assets, (iv) consummation of the planned sale transaction is probable, (v) the assets are being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to their current fair value, (vi) the transaction is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year, and (vii) significant changes to or withdrawal of the plan is unlikely. Following the classification of any depreciable assets within a disposal group as held for sale, we discontinue depreciating the asset and write down the asset to the lower of carrying value or fair market value less cost to sell, if needed.

We completed the sale of approximately $0.7 million of machinery included in "Assets held for sale" during the second quarter of 2021, and we completed the sale of the remaining balance as of December 31, 2021 of $0.1 million in "Assets held for sale" during the first quarter of 2022. We recognized approximately $0.1 million and $0.4 million in impairment charges during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount of our long lived-assets, including property and equipment and finite-lived intangibles, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be assessed when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the operation and disposition of the asset group are less than the carrying amount of the asset group. Asset groups have identifiable cash flows
and are largely independent of other asset groups. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset group over its fair value. Other than the impairment charge recognized on our assets held for sale as noted above, we did not recognize any other impairment charges for long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Property and Equipment, net Property and Equipment, netWe state property and equipment at cost or, if acquired through a business combination, fair value at the date of acquisition. We calculate depreciation and amortization using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, except for our leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or their related lease term. Upon the sale or retirement of assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from our accounts and the resulting gain or loss is credited or charged to income. We expense costs for repairs and maintenance when incurred. Property and equipment includes assets recorded under finance leases, see “Note 5—Leases.” We pledge property and equipment as collateral for our Bridge Loan,
Intangible Assets, net
Intangible Assets, net
Our intangible assets consist of domain names, intellectual property, distribution agreements, proprietary technology, trademarks and tradenames, customer relationships, and other rights. We amortize intangible assets with finite lives over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. The straight-line method of amortization represents our best estimate of the distribution of the economic value of the identifiable intangible assets. We carry intangible assets with finite lives at cost less accumulated amortization. We assess the recoverability of finite-lived intangible assets in the same manner we do for property and equipment, as described above.
For our intangible assets not subject to amortization, we perform an annual impairment assessment during the fourth quarter of each year, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist, to determine whether it is more likely than not that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. If necessary, a quantitative impairment test is performed to compare the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset with its carrying value. Impairments, if any, are based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the asset.
We recognized no impairment charges for intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Investments in Equity Securities
Investments in Equity Securities

Our investments in equity securities measured at fair value on a recurring basis consist of investments in XS Financial Inc. and High Tide Inc. We have determined that our ownership does not provide us with significant influence over the operations of these entities. Accordingly, we account for our investment in these entities as equity securities, and we record changes in the fair value of these investments in "other income (expense), net" in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Our investments in equity securities without readily determinable fair value consist of ownership interests in Airgraft Inc., Sun Grown Packaging, LLC ("Sun Grown") and Vapor Dosing Technologies, Inc. ("VIVA"). We determined that our ownership interests do not provide us with significant influence over the operations of these investments. Accordingly, we account for our investments in these entities as equity securities. Airgraft Inc., Sun Grown, and VIVA are private entities and their equity securities do not have a readily determinable fair value. We elected to measure these securities under the measurement alternative election at cost minus impairment, if any, with adjustments through earnings for observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or similar investment of the same issuer. We acquired our investments in Sun Grown and VIVA as part of our merger with KushCo, which we completed in August 2021. We did not identify any fair value adjustments related to these equity securities during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Investments in equity securities are included within "Other assets" in our consolidated balance sheets.
Goodwill represents the excess of the price we paid over the fair value of the net identifiable assets we acquired in business combinations. In accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, we review goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level annually or, when events or circumstances dictate, more frequently. The impairment review for goodwill consists of a qualitative assessment of whether it is more-likely-than-not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, and if necessary, a quantitative goodwill impairment test. Factors to consider when performing the qualitative assessment include general economic conditions, limitations on accessing capital, changes in forecasted operating results and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. If the qualitative assessment demonstrates that it is more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, it is not necessary to measure and record impairment loss. We may elect to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceed directly to the quantitative assessment, for any reporting unit, in any period. We can resume the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any subsequent period.
When we perform a quantitative impairment test, we use a combination of an income approach, a discounted cash flow valuation approach, and a market approach, using the guideline public company method, to determine the fair value of each reporting unit, and then compare the fair value to its carrying amount to determine the amount of impairment, if any. If a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, we record an impairment charge based on that difference, up to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
The quantitative impairment test requires the application of a number of significant assumptions, including estimated projections of future revenue growth rates, EBITDA margins, terminal value growth rates, market multiples, discount rates, and foreign currency exchange rates. The projections of future cash flows used to assess the fair value of the reporting units are based on the internal operation plans reviewed by management. The market multiples are based on comparable public company multiples. The discount rates are based on the risk-free rate of interest and estimated risk premiums for the reporting units at the time the impairment analysis is prepared. The projections of future exchange rates are based on the current exchange rates at the time the projections are prepared. if the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, no further analysis or write-down of goodwill is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of its net assets, the implied fair value value of the reporting unit is allocated to all its underlying assets and liabilities, including both recognized and unrecognized tangible and intangible assets, based on their fair value. If necessary, goodwill is then written down to its implied fair value.
Vendor Sales Incentives and Rebates
Vendor Incentives and Rebates
Sales incentives we receive in the form of payments from vendors solely to reimburse us for acting as the vendors' agent in redeeming a sales incentive that is between our vendor and our customers and end consumers are included in net sales in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
We also have agreements with certain vendors to receive volume rebates which are dependent upon reaching minimum purchase thresholds. When volume rebates can be reasonably estimated and it is probable that minimum purchase thresholds will be met, we record a portion of the rebate when or as we make progress towards the purchase threshold. Amounts received from vendors relating to volume rebates are considered a reduction of the carrying value of our inventory and, therefore, such amounts are ultimately recorded as a reduction of cost of goods sold in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign Currency Translation
Our consolidated financial statements are presented in United States (U.S.) dollars. The functional currency of one of the Operating Company’s wholly-owned, Canada-based, subsidiaries is the Canadian dollar. The functional currency of the Operating Company’s wholly-owned, Netherlands-based subsidiary is the Euro. The assets and liabilities of these subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at current exchange rate at each balance sheet date for assets and liabilities and an appropriate average exchange rate for each applicable period within our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred. The foreign currency translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, a separate component of members’/stockholders’ deficit in our consolidated balance sheets. Other exchange gains and losses are reported within our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (loss) income includes net (loss) income as currently reported by us, adjusted for other comprehensive items. Other comprehensive items consist of foreign currency translation gains and losses and unrealized gains and losses on derivative financial instruments that qualify as hedges.
Advertising AdvertisingWe expense advertising costs as incurred and include them in general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
We are a corporation subject to income taxes in the United States. Certain subsidiaries of the Operating Company are taxable separately from us. Our proportional share of the Operating Company’s subsidiaries’ provisions are included in our consolidated financial statements.
Our deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the tax basis and financial statement amounts that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future. We compute deferred balances based on enacted tax laws and applicable rates for the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent
operations. If we determine we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets for which a valuation allowance had been recorded, then we would adjust the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce our provision for income taxes.

We evaluate the tax positions taken on income tax returns that remain open and positions expected to be taken on the current year tax returns to identify uncertain tax positions. Unrecognized tax benefits on uncertain tax positions are recorded on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) we determine whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized is recognized. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recorded in income tax benefit. We have no uncertain tax positions that qualify for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. See “Note 11—Income Taxes.”
Tax Receivable Agreement (TRA)
We entered into the TRA with the Operating Company and each of the members of the Operating Company that provides for the payment by the Operating Company to the members of 85% of the amount of tax benefits, if any, that we may actually realize (or in some circumstances are deemed to realize) as a result of (i) increases in tax basis resulting from any future redemptions that are funded by us or exchanges of Common Units as described above in “Note 1—Business Operations and Organization” and (ii) certain other tax benefits attributable to payments made under the TRA.

We compute annual tax benefits by calculating the income taxes due, including such tax benefits, and the income taxes due without such benefits. The Operating Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that it may actually realize. The TRA payments are not conditioned upon any continued ownership interest in the Operating Company. The rights of each noncontrolling interest holder under the TRA are assignable to transferees of its interest in the Operating Company. The timing and amount of aggregate payments due under the TRA may vary based on a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income the Operating Company generates each year and the applicable tax rate.

We periodically evaluate the realizability of the deferred tax assets resulting from the exchange of Common Units for our Class A common stock. If the deferred tax assets are determined to be realizable, we then assess whether payment of amounts under the TRA have become probable. If so, we record a TRA liability equal to 85% of such deferred tax assets. In subsequent periods, we assess the realizability of all of deferred tax assets subject to the TRA. If we determine that a deferred tax asset with a valuation allowance is realizable in a subsequent period, the related valuation allowance will be released and consideration of a corresponding TRA liability will be assessed. The realizability of deferred tax assets, including those subject to the TRA, is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those deferred tax assets become deductible and consideration of prudent and feasible tax-planning strategies.
The measurement of the TRA is accounted for as a contingent liability. Therefore, once we determine that a payment to a member of the Operating Company has become probable and can be estimated, the estimated payment will be accrued.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when customers obtain control of goods and services promised by us. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services, reduced by promotional discounts and estimates for return allowances and refunds. Taxes collected from customers for remittance to governmental authorities are excluded from net sales.
We generate revenue primarily from the sale of finished products to customers, whereby each product unit represents a single performance obligation. We recognize revenue from product sales when the customer has obtained control of the products, which is either at point of sale or delivery to the customer, depending upon the specific terms and conditions of the arrangement, or at the point of sale for our retail store sales. We provide no warranty on products sold. Product warranty is provided by the manufacturers.
Our performance obligations for services are satisfied when the services are rendered within the arranged service period. Total service revenue is not material and accounted for less than 0.1% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Beginning with the first quarter of 2020, we entered into a limited number of bill-and-hold arrangements. Each bill-and-hold arrangement is reviewed and revenue is recognized only when certain criteria have been met: (i) the customer has requested delayed delivery and storage of the products by us, in exchange for a storage fee, because they want to secure a supply of the products but lack storage space, (ii) the risk of ownership has passed to the customer, (iii) the products are segregated from our other inventory items held for sale, (iv) the products are ready for shipment to the customer, and (v) the products are customized and thus we do not have the ability to use the products or direct them to another customer. Revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements was $0.5 million and $1.7 million for the years ended December 2021 and 2020, respectively. Storage fees
charged to customers for bill-and-hold arrangements are recognized as invoiced. Such fees were not significant for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
We act as the principal in relation to our contracts with customers and recognize revenue on a gross basis as we (i) are the primary entity responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified products in the arrangement with the customer and we provide the primary customer service for all products sold, (ii) have discretion in establishing the price for the specified products sold and selecting our suppliers, as applicable, and (iii) we maintain inventory risk upon accepting returns.
For certain product offerings such as child-resistant packaging, closed-system vaporization solutions and custom-branded retail products, we may receive a deposit from the customer (generally 25% - 50% of the total order cost, but the amount can vary by customer contract) when an order is placed by a customer. We typically complete these orders within one to six months from the date of order, depending on the complexity of the customization and the size of the order, but the completion timeline can vary by product type and terms of sales with each customer. See “Note 8—Supplemental Financial Statement Information” for a summary of changes to our customer deposits liability balance during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
We estimate product returns based on historical experience and record them as a refund liability that reduces the net sales for the period. We analyze actual historical returns, current economic trends and changes in order volume when evaluating the adequacy of our sales returns allowance in any reporting period. Our liability for returns, which is included within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" in our consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $1.0 million and $0.8 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers, which is included within "Other current assets" in our consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.2 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
We elected to account for shipping and handling expenses that occur after the customer has obtained control of products as a fulfillment activity in cost of sales. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in net sales upon completion of our performance obligations. We apply the practical expedient provided for by the applicable revenue recognition guidance by not adjusting the transaction price for significant financing components for periods less than one year. We also apply the practical expedient provided by the applicable revenue recognition guidance based upon which we generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is one year or less. Sales commissions are recorded within "Salaries, benefits and payroll tax expenses" in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
No single customer represented more than 10% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, the Company has a concentration of credit risk with its accounts receivable balance as two customers represented approximately 13% and 11% of accounts receivable, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, no single customer represented more than 10% of our accounts receivable balance.
Value Added Taxes

During the third quarter of 2020, as part of a global tax strategy review, we determined that our European subsidiaries based in the Netherlands, which we acquired on September 30, 2019, had historically collected and remitted value added tax ("VAT") payments, which related to direct-to-consumer sales to other European Union ("EU") member states, directly to the Dutch tax authorities. In connection with our subsidiaries' payment of VAT to Dutch tax authorities rather than other EU member states, the German government has commenced a criminal investigation, which could result in penalties; other jurisdictions could commence such investigations as well.

We performed an analysis of the VAT overpayments to the Dutch tax authorities, which we expected to be refunded to us, and VAT payable to other EU member states, including potential fines and penalties. Based on this analysis, we recorded VAT payable of approximately $2.5 million and $9.9 million within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" and VAT receivable of approximately $0.1 million and $4.4 million within "Other current assets" in our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

We established VAT receivables in jurisdictions where VAT paid exceeds VAT collected and are recoverable through the filing of refund claims. Our VAT receivable balance as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 relates to refund claims with the Dutch tax authorities. In April 2021, we received a refund from the Dutch tax authorities of approximately $4.1 million.

Pursuant to the purchase and sale agreement by which we acquired our European subsidiaries, the sellers are required to indemnify us against certain specified matters and losses, including any and all liabilities, claims, penalties and costs incurred or sustained by us in connection with non-compliance with tax laws in relation to activities of the sellers. The indemnity (or indemnification receivable) is limited to an amount equal to the purchase price under the purchase and sale agreement. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized an indemnification asset of approximately $0.1 million and $0.9 million within "Other current assets" using the loss recovery model. We were beneficiaries of a bank guarantee in the amount of approximately $0.9 million for claims for which we are entitled to indemnification under the purchase and sale agreement, which we collected in April 2021. In April 2021, we entered into a settlement agreement with the sellers of Conscious Wholesale requiring the transfer of approximately $0.8 million in cash from the sellers' bank accounts, which we also collected
in April 2021. In May 2021, we entered into another settlement with the sellers to place 650,604 shares of our Class A common stock owned by the sellers in escrow, which requires that those securities be sold as necessary to pay additional liabilities of the seller to us under the purchase and sale agreement.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a charge of approximately $4.5 million within "general and administrative" expenses in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represented the difference between the VAT payable and the VAT receivable and indemnification asset recorded as of December 31, 2020.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized a gain of approximately $1.7 million within "general and administrative expenses" in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represented the partial reversal of the previously recognized charge, as the indemnification asset became probable of recovery based on the settlement agreements with the sellers and the related amounts collected from the sellers, and a reduction in our previously estimated VAT liability for penalties and interest based on our voluntary disclosure to, and ongoing settlement with, the relevant tax authorities in the EU member states.

Management intends to pursue recovery of all additional losses from the sellers to the full extent of the indemnification provisions of the purchase and sale agreement, however, the collectability of such additional indemnification amounts may be subject to litigation and may be affected by the credit risk of indemnifying parties, and are therefore subject to significant uncertainties as to the amount and timing of recovery.

As noted above, we have voluntarily disclosed VAT owed to several relevant tax authorities in the EU member states, and believe in doing so we will reduce our liability for penalties and interest. Nonetheless, we may incur expenses in future periods related to such matters, including litigation costs and other expenses to defend our position. The outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.
Net Loss Per Share Net Loss Per ShareBasic net loss per share of Class A common stock is computed by dividing net loss attributable to Greenlane by the weighted-average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share of Class A common stock is computed by dividing net loss attributable to Greenlane by the weighted-average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding adjusted to give effect to potentially dilutive elements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. We adopted this standard prospectively beginning January 1, 2020. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This update was effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarifies the interaction of accounting for equity securities under Topic 321, the accounting for equity investments in Topic 323, and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options in Topic 815. We adopted this guidance beginning January 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (ASU 2020-06), which addresses the measurement and disclosure requirements for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity's own equity. The new standard simplifies and adds disclosure requirements for the accounting and measurement of convertible instruments and the settlement assessment for contracts in an entity's own equity. This pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2021. We elected to early adopt the new standard beginning January 1, 2021, on a modified retrospective basis. Adoption of this standard did not impact our consolidated financial statements, as we did not hold any instruments to which this standard was applicable during the current reporting period nor in earlier reporting periods.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2022 for filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC's definition. Early adoption is permitted. We do not believe the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides practical expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The expedients and exceptions provided by the amendments in this update apply only to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued as a result of reference rate reform. These amendments are not applicable to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into or evaluated after December 31, 2022. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, which clarified the scope and application of the original guidance. ASU No. 2020-04 and ASU No. 2021-01 are effective as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and may be applied to contract modifications and hedging relationships from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020. We are still evaluating the impact these standards will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which requires that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606, as if it had originated the contracts. Prior to this ASU, an acquirer generally recognizes contract assets acquired and contract liabilities assumed that arose from contracts with customers at fair value on the acquisition date. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The ASU is to be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendment (or if adopted early as of an interim period, as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of early application). We are still assessing this standard’s impact on our consolidated financial statements.