Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
As a result of the IPO and the Transactions completed in April 2019, we own a portion of the Common Units of the Operating Company, which is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal and most applicable state and local income tax purposes. As a partnership, the Operating Company is generally not subject to U.S. federal and certain state and local income taxes. Any taxable income or loss generated by the Operating Company is passed through to and included in the taxable income or loss of its members, including Greenlane, on a pro-rata basis, in accordance with the terms of the Operating Agreement. The Operating Company is also subject to taxes in foreign jurisdictions. We are a corporation subject to U.S. federal income taxes, in additional to state and local income taxes, based on our share of the Operating Company’s pass-through taxable income.
As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, management performed an assessment of the realizability of our deferred tax assets based upon which management determined that it is not more likely than not that the results of operations will generate sufficient taxable income to realize portions of the net operating loss benefits. Consequently, we established a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, and reflected a carrying balance of $0 as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. In the event that management determines that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, an adjustment to the valuation allowance will be made, which would reduce the provision for income taxes. The income tax benefit and provision for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, relates to taxes in foreign jurisdictions, including Canada and the Netherlands.

For the three months ended March 31, 2020, the effective tax rate differed from the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21% primarily due to the Operating Company’s pass-through structure for U.S. income tax purposes, the relative mix in earnings and losses in the U.S. versus foreign tax jurisdictions, and the valuation allowance against the deferred tax asset.
For the three months ended March 31, 2020, we did not have any unrecognized tax benefits as a result of tax positions taken during a prior period or during the current period. No interest or penalties have been recorded as a result of tax uncertainties.
Tax Receivable Agreement (TRA)
We entered into the TRA with the Operating Company and each of the members that provides for the payment by the Operating Company to the members of 85% of the amount of tax benefits, if any, that we may actually realize (or in some circumstances are deemed to realize) as a result of (i) increases in tax basis resulting from any future redemptions that are funded by us or exchanges of Common Units described above in “Note 1—Business Operations and Organization” and (ii) certain other tax benefits attributable to payments made under the TRA.

The annual tax benefits are computed by calculating the income taxes due, including such tax benefits, and the income taxes due without such benefits. The Operating Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that it may actually realize. The TRA payments are not conditioned upon any continued ownership interest in the Operating Company. The rights of each noncontrolling interest holder under the TRA are assignable to transferees of its interest in the Operating Company. The timing and amount of aggregate payments due under the TRA may vary based on a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income the Operating Company generates each year and the applicable tax rate.

As noted above, we evaluated the realizability of the deferred tax assets resulting from the IPO and the Transactions completed in April 2019 and established a full valuation allowance against those benefits. As a result, we determined that payments to noncontrolling interest holders under the TRA are no longer probable. Based on this assessment, our TRA liability as of March 31, 2020 was $0. The total unrecorded TRA liability was estimated to be approximately $5.7 million as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019. If utilization of the deferred tax assets subject to the TRA becomes more likely than not in the future, we will record a liability related to the TRA, which would be recognized as expense within our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we did not make any payments, inclusive of interest, to members of the Operating Company pursuant to the TRA.