Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP") and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all information and notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for fair financial statement presentation have been made. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts or balances to conform to the presentation adopted in the current year. The consolidated results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2019, or any other future annual or interim period. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Operating Company's audited consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2018, which are included in Greenlane's final prospectus, dated April 17, 2019, filed with the SEC on April 22, 2019 pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates that affect certain reported amounts and disclosures. These estimates are based on management's knowledge and experience. Significant items subject to such estimates include the accounts receivable allowance for doubtful accounts, the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory, assumptions used in the calculation of equity-based compensation, and the convertible notes valuation. Accordingly, actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company's chief operating decision maker ("CODM") is Aaron LoCascio, Greenlane's Chief Executive Officer. The CODM reviews operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on an entity-wide or aggregate basis. The Company has two distinct operating segments, which include the United States operations and Canadian operations. The Canadian operating segment consists of the Company's wholly-owned, Canada-based, subsidiary. The United States operating segment is comprised of all other operating subsidiaries. Beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2019, the Company had a change in reportable segments as the Canadian operating segment no longer met the quantitative criteria to be aggregated with the United States operating segment as one reportable segment. The United States and Canada reportable segments have been identified based on how the CODM manages the business, makes operating decisions and evaluates operating performance. See "Note 15—Segment Reporting."
Business combinations are accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations ("ASC 805"). Under the acquisition method, the acquiring entity in a business combination recognizes 100% of the acquired assets and assumed liabilities, regardless of the percentage owned, at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets and other identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. To the extent the fair value of the net assets acquired, including other identifiable assets, exceeds the purchase price, a bargain purchase gain is recognized. Assets acquired, and liabilities assumed from contingencies, are recognized at fair value if the fair value can be determined during the measurement period. Results of operations of an acquired business are included in the condensed consolidated statement of operations from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related costs, including conversion and restructuring charges, are expensed as incurred. See "Note 11— Business Acquisition."
The Company accounts for equity-based compensation grants of equity awards to employees in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. This standard requires compensation expense to be measured based on the estimated fair value of share-based awards on the date of grant and recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. Equity-based compensation costs are recognized using a graded vesting schedule. For liability-classified awards, the Company records fair value adjustments up to and including the settlement date. Changes in the fair value of the equity-based compensation liability that occur during the requisite service period are recognized as compensation cost over the vesting period. Changes in the fair value of the equity-based compensation liability that occur after the end of the requisite service period but before settlement, are compensation cost of the period in which the change occurs. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. See "Note 13—Equity-Based Compensation."
Fair Value Measurements
The Company applies the provisions of ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for its measurement and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or an exit price that would be paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The Company determines the fair market values of its financial instruments based on the fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The following three levels of inputs may be used to measure fair value:
The carrying amounts of the Company's financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and short-term debt, are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of long-term debt is the estimated amount the Company would have to pay to repurchase the debt, including any premium or discount attributable to the difference between the stated interest rate and market rate of interest at each balance sheet date. As of June 30, 2019, and 2018, the carrying amount of the Company's long-term debt approximated its fair value.
For purposes of reporting cash flows, the Company considers cash on hand, checking accounts, and savings accounts to be cash. The Company considers all highly-liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company places its cash with high credit quality financial institutions, which provide insurance through the Federal Deposit Insurance Company. At times, the balance in these accounts may exceed federal insured limits. The Company performs periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of these institutions and does not expect any losses related to such concentrations. As of June 30, 2019, and December 31, 2018, approximately $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively, of the Company's cash balances were in foreign bank accounts and uninsured. As of June 30, 2019, and December 31, 2018, the Company had no cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable, net
Accounts receivable represent amounts due from customers for merchandise sales and are recorded when product has shipped. An account is considered past due when payment has not been rendered by its due date based upon the terms of the sale. Generally, accounts receivable are due 30 days after the billing date. The Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a history of collections as well as current credit conditions. Accounts are written off as uncollectible on a case-by-case basis. Accounts receivable were reported net of the allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.6 million and $0.7 million at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. Accounts receivable are pledged as collateral for the line of credit. See "Note 7—Long Term Debt."
Inventories consist principally of finished goods that are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value on a weighted average cost basis. The Company has established an allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory based upon assumptions about future demands and market conditions. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the reserve for obsolescence was approximately $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively. Inventory is pledged as collateral for the line of credit. See "Note 7—Long Term Debt."
Deferred Financing Costs
Costs incurred in obtaining certain debt financing are deferred and amortized over the respective terms of the related debt instruments using the interest method for term debt and the straight-line method for revolving debt. The debt issuance costs related to the revolving line of credit are presented as an asset on the condensed consolidated balance sheets while the debt issuance costs related to the real estate note are presented net against the long-term debt in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of June 30, 2019, and December 31, 2018, the Company had deferred debt issuance costs totaling approximately $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, in connection with the issuance of long-term debt, which are included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. The amortization of deferred debt issuance costs is included in interest expense and was not a significant amount for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018.
The Company accounts for the cost of issuing equity instruments to effect business combinations as a reduction of the otherwise determined fair value of the equity instruments issued. The Company expenses any fees not associated with arranging equity or debt financing as incurred.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost or, if acquired through a business acquisition, fair value at the date of acquisition. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the asset, except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease term. Upon the sale or retirement of assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the resulting gain or loss is credited or charged to income. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred.
In April 2019, the Company changed its capitalization policy for property and equipment, and intangible assets, increasing the threshold for capitalizing all purchases from $1,000 to $5,000. The primary reason for the change is that by eliminating the requirement to record and track relatively low valued items, more attention and effort can be given to safeguarding and properly measuring the remaining, higher valued assets of the Company
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company expensed approximately $0.04 million that would have been capitalized under the prior capitalization policy.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying amount of its long lived-assets, including property and equipment and finite-lived intangibles, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be assessed when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the operation and disposition of the asset group are less than the carrying amount of the asset group. Asset groups have identifiable cash flows and are largely independent of other asset groups. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset group over its fair value. There was no impairment loss for long-lived assets for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. See "Note 4—Property and Equipment."
Intangible Assets, net
Intangible assets consist of domain names, intellectual property, distribution agreements, proprietary technology, trademarks and tradenames, and other rights. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. The straight-line method of amortization represents the Company's best estimate of the distribution of the economic value of the identifiable intangible assets. Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization. The Company assesses the recoverability of finite-lived intangible assets in the same manner as for property and equipment, as described above. There were no impairment charges for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. See "Note 5—Goodwill and Intangible Assets."
In accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, the Company tests goodwill for impairment for each reporting unit on an annual basis, or when events or circumstances indicate the fair value of a reporting unit is below its carrying value. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired in business combinations. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually in the fourth quarter and between annual tests if there are indicators of impairment that suggest a decline in the fair value of a reporting unit. Judgment is involved in determining if an indicator or change in circumstances relating to impairment has occurred. Such changes may include, among others, a significant decline in expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate, and unforeseen competition. No goodwill impairment charges were recognized during the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. See "Note 5—Goodwill and Intangible Assets."
Equity method investments
Investee companies that are not consolidated, but over which the Company exercises significant influence, are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method of accounting, an investee company's accounts are not reflected within the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets and statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income; however, the Company's share of the earnings or losses of the investee company is reflected in the caption "Other income, net'' in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. The Company's carrying value in an equity method investee company is reflected in the caption "Investments" in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. When the Company's carrying value in an equity method investee company is reduced to zero, no further losses are recorded in the Company's consolidated financial statements unless the Company has guaranteed obligations of the investee company or has committed additional funding. When the investee company subsequently reports income, the Company will not record its share of such income until it equals the amount of its share of losses not previously recognized.
The Company's investment that is accounted for on the equity method of accounting consists of a 50% interest in a joint venture entity. The investment in this joint venture entity was not significant at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018. In the second quarter of 2019, the Company consolidated a former joint venture, which was previously accounted for as an equity investment. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, the operating activity related to this joint venture was not material. These investments were not established until the first quarter of 2019. Our equity method investments as of June 30, 2018 also consisted of a 33.3% non-controlling interest in NWT Holdings, LLC ("NWT"), a manufacturer of aromatic devices. The income from the equity method investment was approximately $0.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018. On December 11, 2018, the Operating Company spun off 100% of its interest in the subsidiary which held its investment in NWT through a distribution to its members. The Company had no income from its equity method investment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively.
The Company's equity securities consist of an investment in Airgraft Inc. (ownership 1.71%). The Company has determined that its ownership does not provide it with significant influence over the operations of this investee. Accordingly, the Company accounts for its investment in this entity as equity securities. Airgraft Inc. is a private entity and its equity securities do not have a readily determinable fair value. The Company has elected to measure this security at cost minus impairment, if any; The security is adjusted to fair value when an observable price change can be identified. The balance of this investment was $0.5 million at June 30, 2019.
Vendor deposits represent prepayments made to vendors for inventory purchases. A significant number of vendors require prepayment for inventory purchases made by the Company.
Deferred Offering Costs
The Company capitalized certain legal, accounting, and other third-party fees that were directly attributable to Greenlane's IPO. Following the successful consummation of the IPO in April 2019, deferred offering costs of approximately $3.5 million were recorded in the Company's stockholders' equity as a reduction of additional paid in capital. Deferred offering costs were approximately $2.3 million as of December 31, 2018. The Company had no deferred offering costs at June 30, 2019.
Foreign Currency Translation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in United States (U.S.) dollars. The functional currency of one of the Company's wholly-owned, Canada-based, subsidiaries is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of this subsidiary are translated into U.S. dollars at current exchange rates and revenue and expenses are translated at average exchange rates for the year. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred. The foreign currency translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, a separate component of members' deficit in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Other exchange gains and losses are reported in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (loss) income includes net (loss) income as currently reported by the Company, adjusted for other comprehensive items. Other comprehensive items for the Company consist of foreign currency translation gains and losses.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. Advertising costs totaled approximately $1.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively and $2.3 million and $1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company recognizes positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return in accordance with existing accounting guidance on income taxes which prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process. Under U.S. GAAP, a tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is "more likely than not" that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the "more likely than not" test, no tax benefit is recorded. Interest and penalties on tax liabilities, if any, would be recorded in interest expense and other non-interest expense, respectively.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considered whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of the promised goods or services. The amount of revenue that is recorded reflects the consideration that the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services, net of any variable consideration (e.g., rights to return product, sales incentives, others) and any taxes collected from customers and subsequently remitted to governmental authorities. The Company uses a best estimate approach to measure variable consideration which approximates the expected value method. The Company applies the following five-step model in order to determine this amount: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services the Company transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, management reviews the contract to determine which performance obligations must be delivered and which of these performance obligations are distinct. The Company recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when the performance obligation is satisfied.
The Company generates revenue primarily from the sale of finished products to customers, whereby each product unit represents a single performance obligation. The performance obligation is satisfied when the customer obtains control of the product, which typically occurs at the time of shipping. Upon shipping, the customer has legal title of the product and bears the significant risks and rewards of ownership, including the right to sell or redirect the product. As such, customer orders are recorded as revenue once the order is shipped from one of the Company's distribution centers. The Company's performance obligations for services are satisfied when the services are rendered within the arranged service period. Total service revenue is not material and accounted for less than 5% of revenues for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, and less than 5% of revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. The Company provides no warranty on products sold. Product warranty is provided by the manufacturers.
The Company elected to account for shipping and handling expenses that occur after the customer has obtained control of products as a fulfillment activity in cost of sales. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in net sales upon completion of the Company's performance obligations.
Revenue is presented net of sales taxes, discounts and expected refunds.
Product revenues are recorded net of estimated rebates or sales incentives as well as estimated product returns as elements of variable consideration. The actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results in the future vary from the Company's estimates, the Company will adjust these estimates, which would affect net revenue from products in the period such variances become known. The Company estimates product returns based on historical experience and records them on a gross basis as a refund liability that reduces the net sales for the period. The Company analyzes actual historical returns, current economic trends and changes in order volume when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns allowance in any accounting period. The liability for returns is included in accrued expenses on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets and was approximately $0.6 million and $0.5 million at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. Included in other current assets is an asset totaling approximately $0.3 million and $0.3 million as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, relating to the recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers.
The Company has an established a supply chain for premium, patented, child-resistant packaging, closed-system vaporization solutions and custom-branded retail products. For these product offerings, the Company generally receives a deposit from the customer (generally 50% of the total order cost, but the amount can vary by customer contract), when an order is placed by a customer. These orders are typically completed within six weeks to three months from the date of order, depending on the complexity of the customization and the size of the order. Customer deposits, which represent deferred revenue, are included in accrued expenses on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets and were approximately $2.7 million and $3.2 million at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. See "Note 6—Composition of Certain Financial Statement Captions."
The Company holds several exclusive distribution agreements with its manufacturers that are evaluated against the criteria outlined in ASC 606-10-55, Principal versus Agent Considerations, in determining whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs or the net amount earned. In all arrangements, the Company determined that it acts as the principal in the transaction, controlling the good or service before it is transferred to the customer. As such, the Company records gross revenue for such arrangements.
The Company applies the practical expedient provided for by ASC 606 by not adjusting the transaction price for significant financing components for periods less than one year. The Company also applies the practical expedient provided for by ASC 606 based upon which the Company generally expenses sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is one year or less. These costs are recorded within salaries, benefits and payroll tax expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. Furthermore, the Company does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts with an original expected length of one year or less.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to the Company by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by giving effect to all potential weighted average dilutive shares including stock options, restricted stock units, dividend equivalent units, restricted stock awards, and Common Units exchangeable for shares of Class A common stock for the periods after the closing of the IPO. The dilutive effect of outstanding awards, if any, is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method or if-converted method, as applicable. See "Note 3—Income (Loss) Per Share."
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which, among other things, requires lessees to recognize substantially all leases on their balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard establishes a right of use ("ROU") model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The new standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. The Company adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition approach. See "Note 8—Leases" for further discussion regarding the Company's adoption of the new standard.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation: Improvements to Nonemployee Share Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2018-07 provides guidance on accounting for equity-based awards issued to nonemployees. The standard is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2019. Adoption of the new standard did not have a material impact on the Company's financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement, Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which eliminates, adds and modifies certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. For example, entities will no longer have to disclose the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, but public companies will be required to disclose the range and weighted average used to develop significant unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those years. Entities are permitted to early adopt the entire standard or only the provisions that eliminate or modify the requirements. The Company is currently evaluating the new guidance but does not expect it to have a material impact on its financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an "expected loss" model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for the Company for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the new guidance but does not expect it to have a material impact on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef