Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationOur audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-K and Article 8 of Regulation S-X.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts, the accounts of the Operating Company, and the accounts of the Operating Company's consolidated subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
Conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical information and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments in several areas. Such areas include, but are not limited to: the collectability of accounts receivable; the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory; the realizability of deferred tax assets; the fair value of goodwill; the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements; the useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment; the calculation of our VAT taxes receivable and VAT taxes, fines, and penalties payable; our loss contingencies, including our TRA liability; and the valuation and assumptions underlying equity-based compensation. These estimates are based on management's knowledge about current events and expectations about actions we may undertake in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") a global pandemic. We expect uncertainties around our key accounting estimates to continue to evolve depending on the duration and degree of impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information emerges, and such changes are recognized or disclosed in our consolidated financial statements.
Segment Reporting Segment ReportingBeginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2019, we had a change in reportable segments as our Canadian operating segment met certain quantitative thresholds based upon which its separate disclosure was required. Our Canadian operating segment consists of the Operating Company’s wholly-owned, Canada-based, subsidiary. We completed our acquisition of ARI Logistics B.V. and Shavita B.V. (collectively, "Conscious Wholesale") based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on September 30, 2019. During the fourth quarter of 2019, we assigned goodwill from the Conscious Wholesale acquisition to our new European operating segment, which was also established as a reportable segment during the fourth quarter of 2019. Our United States operating segment is comprised of all other operating subsidiaries. Our United States, Canada, and Europe reportable segments have been identified based on how our Chief Operating Decision Makers ("CODMS"), a committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and out Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), manage the business, make resource allocation and operating decisions, and evaluate operating performance.
Business Combinations Business CombinationsOur business combinations are accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). Under the acquisition method, we recognize 100% of the assets we acquire and liabilities we assume, regardless of the percentage we own, at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets and other identifiable intangible assets we acquire is recorded as goodwill. To the extent the fair value of the net assets we acquire, including other identifiable assets, exceeds the purchase price, a bargain purchase gain is recognized. The assets we acquire, and liabilities we assume from contingencies, are recognized at fair value if we can readily determine the fair value during the measurement period. The operating results of businesses we acquire are included in our consolidated statement of operations from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.
Equity-Based Compensation Equity-Based CompensationWe account for equity-based compensation grants of equity awards to employees in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation. This standard requires us to measure compensation expense based on the estimated fair value of share-based awards on the grant date and recognize as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. We estimate the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes model on the grant date. The Black-Scholes model requires us to use several variables to estimate the grant-date fair value of our equity-based compensation awards including expected term, expected volatility and risk-free interest rates. Our equity-based compensation costs are recognized using a graded vesting schedule. For liability-classified awards, we record fair value adjustments up to and including the settlement date. Changes in the fair value of our equity-based compensation liability that occur during the requisite service period are recognized as compensation cost over the vesting period. Changes in the fair value of the equity-based compensation liability that occur after the end of the requisite service period but before settlement, are recognized as compensation cost of the period in which the change occurs. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements
We apply the provisions of ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for its measurement and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price we would receive for an asset or an exit price we would pay to transfer a liability in the principal, or most advantageous, market for our asset or liability in an orderly transaction with a market participant on the measurement date. We determine the fair market values of our financial instruments based on the fair value hierarchy, which requires us to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The following three levels of inputs may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1        Observable inputs such as unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
Level 2        Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3        Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and short-term debt, are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of their short-term nature. The fair value of our long-term debt is the estimated amount we would have to pay to repurchase the debt, inclusive of any premium or discount attributable to the difference between the stated interest rate and market rate of interest at each balance sheet date. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the carrying amount of our long-term debt approximated its fair value. On a recurring
basis, we measure and record contingent consideration and our interest-rate swap arrangement using fair value measurements in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. See “Note 4—Fair Value of Financial Instruments.”We also own equity securities of a private entity, which do not have readily determinable fair values. We elected to measure these equity securities at cost minus impairment, if any. At each reporting period, we make a qualitative assessment considering impairment indicators to evaluate whether our investment is impaired. The equity securities are adjusted to fair value when an observable price change can be identified.
Cash CashFor purposes of reporting cash flows, we consider cash on hand, checking accounts, and savings accounts to be cash. We also consider all highly-liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. We place our cash with high credit quality financial institutions, which provide insurance through the Federal Deposit Insurance Company. At times, the balance in our accounts may exceed federal insured limits. We perform periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of these institutions and do not expect any losses related to such concentrations. As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, approximately $2.3 million and $0.9 million, respectively, of our cash balances were in foreign bank accounts and uninsured.
Accounts Receivable, net Accounts Receivable, netAccounts receivable represent amounts due from customers for merchandise sales and are recorded when revenue is earned and are carried at the original invoiced amount less an allowance for any potentially uncollectible amounts. An account is considered past due when payment has not been rendered by its due date based upon the terms of the sale. Generally, accounts receivable are due 30 days after the billing date. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to reserve for potentially uncollectible receivable amounts. In evaluating our ability to collect outstanding receivable balances, we consider various factors including the age of the balance, the creditworthiness of the customer, the customer's current financial condition, current economic conditions, and other factors that may affect our ability to collect from customers. We write off accounts as uncollectible on a case-by-case basis. We pledge accounts receivable as collateral for our line of credit.
Inventories, net Inventories, netInventories consist of finished goods that we value at the lower of cost or net realizable value on a weighted average cost basis. We established an allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory based upon assumptions about future demands and market conditions. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the reserve for obsolescence was approximately $1.6 million and $1.3 million, respectively. We pledge inventory as collateral for our line of credit.
Assets Held for Sale and Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Assets Held for Sale

We generally consider assets to be held for sale when (i) we commit to a plan to sell the assets, (ii) the assets are available for immediate sale in their present condition, (iii) we have initiated an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the assets, (iv) consummation of the planned sale transaction is probable, (v) the assets are being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to their current fair value, (vi) the transaction is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year, and (vii) significant changes to or withdrawal of the plan is unlikely. Following the classification of any depreciable assets within a disposal group as held for sale, we discontinue depreciating the asset and write down the asset to the lower of carrying value or fair market value less cost to sell, if needed. As described in "Note 5—Leases" and "Note 8—Supplemental Financial Statement Information," we have taken actions that have caused certain property and equipment and right-of-use assets to meet the relevant criteria for classification and reporting as held for sale. We recognized an impairment charge of approximately $0.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 related to assets classified as held for sale.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount of our long lived-assets, including property and equipment and finite-lived intangibles, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be assessed when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the operation and disposition of the asset group are less than the carrying amount of the asset group. Asset groups have identifiable cash flows and are largely independent of other asset groups. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset group over its fair value. Other than the impairment charge recognized on our assets held for sale as noted above, we did not recognized any other impairment charges for long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred Financing Costs
Costs incurred in obtaining certain debt financing are deferred and amortized over the respective terms of the related debt instruments using the interest method for term debt and the straight-line method for revolving debt. The debt issuance costs related to our revolving line of credit are presented as an asset in our consolidated balance sheets while the debt issuance costs related to our real estate note are presented net against the long-term debt in our consolidated balance sheets.
We account for costs of issuing equity instruments to effect business combinations as a reduction of the otherwise determined fair value of the equity instruments we issue. We expense any fees not associated with arranging equity or debt financing as incurred.
Property and Equipment, net Property and Equipment, netWe state property and equipment at cost or, if acquired through a business combination, fair value at the date of acquisition. We calculate depreciation and amortization using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, except for our leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or their related lease term. Upon the sale or retirement of assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from our accounts and the resulting gain or loss is credited or charged to income. We expense costs for repairs and maintenance when incurred. Property and equipment includes assets recorded under finance leases, see “Note 5—Leases.” We pledge property and equipment as collateral for our line of credit.
Intangible Assets, net Intangible Assets, netOur intangible assets consist of domain names, intellectual property, distribution agreements, proprietary technology, trademarks and tradenames, customer relationships, and other rights. We amortize intangible assets with finite lives over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. The straight-line method of amortization represents our best estimate of the distribution of the economic value of the identifiable intangible assets. We carry intangible assets at cost less accumulated amortization. We assess the recoverability of finite-lived intangible assets in the same manner we do for property and equipment, as described above. We recognized no impairment charges for intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Goodwill represents the excess of the price we paid over the fair value of the net identifiable assets we acquired in business combinations. In accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, we review goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level annually or, when events or circumstances dictate, more frequently. The impairment review for goodwill consists of a qualitative assessment of whether it is more-likely-than-not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, and if necessary, a quantitative goodwill impairment test. Factors to consider when performing the qualitative assessment include general economic conditions, limitations on accessing capital, changes in forecasted operating results and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. If the qualitative assessment demonstrates that it is more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, it is not necessary to measure and record impairment loss. We may elect to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceed directly to the quantitative assessment, for any reporting unit, in any period. We can resume the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any subsequent period.
When we perform a quantitative impairment test, we use a combination of an income approach, a discounted cash flow valuation approach, and a market approach, using the guideline public company method, to determine the fair value of each reporting unit, and then compare the fair value to its carrying amount to determine the amount of impairment, if any. If a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, we record an impairment charge based on that difference, up to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
The quantitative impairment test requires the application of a number of significant assumptions, including estimated projections of future revenue growth rates, EBITDA margins, terminal value growth rates, market multiples, discount rates, and foreign currency exchange rates. The projections of future cash flows used to assess the fair value of the reporting units are based on the internal operation plans reviewed by management. The market multiples are based on comparable public company multiples. The discount rates are based on the risk-free rate of interest and estimated risk premiums for the reporting units at the time the impairment analysis is prepared. The projections of future exchange rates are based on the current exchange rates at the time the projections are prepared. if the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, no further analysis or write-down of goodwill is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of its net assets, the implied fair value value of the reporting unit is allocated to all its underlying assets and liabilities, including both recognized and unrecognized tangible and intangible assets, based on their fair value. If necessary, goodwill is then written down to its implied fair value.
We recognized approximately $9.0 million in impairment charges during the year ended December 31, 2020. We recognized no goodwill impairment charges during the year ended December 31, 2019.

Our investments in equity securities consist of a 1.49% ownership interest in Airgraft Inc. We determined that our ownership does not provide us with significant influence over the operations of this investee. Accordingly, we account for our investment in this entity as equity securities. Airgraft Inc. is a private entity and its equity securities do not have a readily determinable fair value. We elected to measure this security at cost minus impairment, if any. The security is adjusted to fair value when an observable price change can be identified. At December 31, 2020, the carrying value of this investment was approximately $2.0 million, which included an upward adjustment of $1.5 million based on an observable price change recognized during the year ended December 31, 2019. The adjustment was determined based on Airgraft Inc.’s price per share sold in connection with a new financing round during the third quarter of 2019, for shares which were determined to be similar to the equity securities held by us. This adjustment in the carrying value of our investment in equity securities was recorded as an unrealized gain of approximately $1.5 million within “Other income (expense), net” in our consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019. There were no observable price changes in our equity securities for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Vendor Deposits
Vendor Deposits
Vendor deposits represent prepayments we make to vendors for inventory purchases. A significant number of vendors require us to prepay for inventory purchases.
Deferred Offering Costs
Deferred Offering Costs

We capitalized certain legal, accounting, and other third-party fees that were directly attributable to our IPO. Following the successful consummation of the IPO in April 2019, deferred offering costs of approximately $3.5 million were recorded in stockholders’ equity as a reduction of our additional paid-in capital.
Vendor Sales Incentives Offered Directly to Consumers and Vendor Rebates
Vendor Incentives and Rebates
Sales incentives we receive in the form of payments from vendors solely to reimburse us for acting as the vendors' agent in redeeming a sales incentive that is between our vendor and our customers and end consumers are included in net sales in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
We also have agreements with certain vendors to receive volume rebates which are dependent upon reaching minimum purchase thresholds. When volume rebates can be reasonably estimated and it is probable that minimum purchase thresholds will be met, we record a portion of the rebate when or as we make progress towards the purchase threshold. Amounts received from vendors relating to volume rebates are considered a reduction of the carrying value of our inventory and, therefore, such amounts are ultimately recorded as a reduction of cost of goods sold in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign Currency Translation
Our consolidated financial statements are presented in United States (U.S.) dollars. The functional currency of one of the Operating Company’s wholly-owned, Canada-based, subsidiaries is the Canadian dollar. The functional currency of the Operating Company’s wholly-owned, Netherlands-based subsidiary is the Euro. The assets and liabilities of these subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at current exchange rate at each balance sheet date for assets and liabilities and an appropriate average exchange rate for each applicable period within our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred. The foreign currency translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, a separate component of members’/stockholders’ deficit in our consolidated balance sheets. Other exchange gains and losses are reported within our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (loss) income includes net (loss) income as currently reported by us, adjusted for other comprehensive items. Other comprehensive items consist of foreign currency translation gains and losses and unrealized gains and losses on derivative financial instruments that qualify as hedges.
Advertising AdvertisingWe expense advertising costs as incurred and include them in general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Income Taxes Income Taxes
We are a corporation subject to income taxes in the United States. Certain subsidiaries of the Operating Company are taxable separately from us. Our proportional share of the Operating Company’s subsidiaries’ provisions are included in our consolidated financial statements.
Our deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the tax basis and financial statement amounts that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future. We compute deferred balances based on enacted tax laws and applicable rates for the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If we determine we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets for which a valuation allowance had been recorded, then we would adjust the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce our provision for income taxes.

We evaluate the tax positions taken on income tax returns that remain open and positions expected to be taken on the current year tax returns to identify uncertain tax positions. Unrecognized tax benefits on uncertain tax positions are recorded on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) we determine whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized is recognized. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recorded in income tax benefit. We have no uncertain tax positions that qualify for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. See “Note 11—Income Taxes.”
Tax Receivable Agreement (TRA)
We entered into the TRA with the Operating Company and each of the members of the Operating Company that provides for the payment by the Operating Company to the members of 85% of the amount of tax benefits, if any, that we may actually realize (or in some circumstances are deemed to realize) as a result of (i) increases in tax basis resulting from any future redemptions that are funded by us or exchanges of Common Units as described above in “Note 1—Business Operations and Organization” and (ii) certain other tax benefits attributable to payments made under the TRA.

We compute annual tax benefits by calculating the income taxes due, including such tax benefits, and the income taxes due without such benefits. The Operating Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that it may actually realize. The TRA payments are not conditioned upon any continued ownership interest in the Operating Company. The rights of each noncontrolling interest holder under the TRA are assignable to transferees of its interest in the Operating Company. The timing and amount of aggregate payments due under the TRA may vary based on a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income the Operating Company generates each year and the applicable tax rate.

We periodically evaluate the realizability of the deferred tax assets resulting from the exchange of Common Units for our Class A common stock. If the deferred tax assets are determined to be realizable, we then assess whether payment of amounts under the TRA have become probable. If so, we record a TRA liability equal to 85% of such deferred tax assets. In subsequent periods, we assess the realizability of all of deferred tax assets subject to the TRA. If we determine that a deferred tax asset with a valuation allowance is realizable in a subsequent period, the related valuation allowance will be released and consideration of a corresponding TRA liability will be assessed. The realizability of deferred tax assets, including those subject to the TRA, is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those deferred tax assets become deductible and consideration of prudent and feasible tax-planning strategies.
The measurement of the TRA is accounted for as a contingent liability. Therefore, once we determine that a payment to a member of the Operating Company has become probable and can be estimated, the estimated payment will be accrued.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when customers obtain control of goods and services promised by us. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services, reduced by promotional discounts and estimates for return allowances and refunds. Taxes collected from customers for remittance to governmental authorities are excluded from net sales.
We generate revenue primarily from the sale of finished products to customers, whereby each product unit represents a single performance obligation. We recognize revenue from product sales when the customer has obtained control of the products, which is either at point of sale or delivery to the customer, depending upon the specific terms and conditions of the arrangement, or at the point of sale for our retail store sales. We provide no warranty on products sold. Product warranty is provided by the manufacturers.
Our performance obligations for services are satisfied when the services are rendered within the arranged service period. Total service revenue is not material and accounted for less than 0.1% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Beginning with the first quarter of 2020, we entered into a limited number of bill-and-hold arrangements. Each bill-and-hold arrangement is reviewed and revenue is recognized only when certain criteria have been met: (i) the customer has requested delayed delivery and storage of the products by us, in exchange for a storage fee, because they want to secure a supply of the products but lack storage space, (ii) the risk of ownership has passed to the customer, (iii) the products are segregated from our other inventory items held for sale, (iv) the products are ready for shipment to the customer, and (v) the products are customized and thus we do not have the ability to use the products or direct them to another customer. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded approximately $1.7 million of revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements. We did not recognize any revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements during the year ended December 31, 2019. Storage fees charged to customers for bill-and-hold arrangements are recognized as invoiced. Such fees were not significant for the year ended December 31, 2020.
We act as the principal in relation to our contracts with customers and recognize revenue on a gross basis as we (i) are the primary entity responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified products in the arrangement with the customer and we provide the primary customer service for all products sold, (ii) have discretion in establishing the price for the specified products sold and selecting our suppliers, as applicable, and (iii) we maintain inventory risk upon accepting returns.
For certain product offerings such as premium, patented, child-resistant packaging, closed-system vaporization solutions and custom-branded retail products, we generally receive a deposit from the customer (generally 50% of the total order cost, but the amount can vary by customer contract), when an order is placed by a customer. We typically complete these orders within six weeks to three months from the date of order, depending on the complexity of the customization and the size of the order. See “Note 8—Supplemental Financial Statement Information” for a summary of changes to our customer deposit liability balance during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
We estimate product returns based on historical experience and record them as a refund liability that reduces the net sales for the period. We analyze actual historical returns, current economic trends and changes in order volume when evaluating the adequacy of our sales returns allowance in any reporting period. Our liability for returns is included within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" in our consolidated balance sheets and was approximately $0.8 million and $0.6 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers is included within "Other current assets" in our consolidated balance sheets and was approximately $0.2 million and $0.3 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
We elected to account for shipping and handling expenses that occur after the customer has obtained control of products as a fulfillment activity in cost of sales. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in net sales upon completion of our performance obligations. We apply the practical expedient provided for by ASC 606 by not adjusting the transaction price for significant financing components for periods less than one year. We also apply the practical expedient provided for by ASC 606 based upon which we generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is one year or less. Sales commissions are recorded within "Salaries, benefits and payroll tax expenses" in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
No single customer represented more than 10% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, no single customer represented more than 10% of our accounts receivable balance.
Federal Drug Administration's ENDS Enforcement Guidance and Premarket Tobacco Product Applications
In January 2020, the FDA issued ENDS Enforcement Guidance, which outlines the FDA's intent to prioritize enforcement against flavored, cartridge-based ENDS products (except tobacco or menthol flavored products), all other ENDS products for which the manufacturer has failed to take adequate measures to prevent access to minors, and any ENDS products targeted to minors or whose marketing is likely to promote usage by minors. Additionally, the deadline for ENDS manufacturers to submit Premarket Tobacco Product Applications ("PMTA") was September 9, 2020. The FDA has indicated its intent to prioritize enforcement against ENDS products offered for sale after September 9, 2020 for which the manufacturer has not submitted a PMTA. The FDA is not necessarily bound by these enforcement priorities, and it has recently taken actions against other products and may take additional actions against other products as warranted by circumstances.
The ENDS Enforcement Guidance had the effect of prohibiting the sale of certain products in the United States, including mint-flavored products from JUUL Labs and other flavored ENDS, starting February 2020. Products impacted by the ENDS Enforcement Guidance represented less than 0.1% of our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020, and approximately 17.8% of our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2019.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we sold products for which manufacturers have not submitted a PMTA to the FDA by September 9, 2020. Sales of these products represented approximately 0.4% and 1.0% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
While we have been compliant with and expect to remain in compliance with the ENDS Enforcement Guidance, further actions and developments of FDA's guidance could adversely affect our sales of ENDS products and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Value Added Taxes

During the year ended December 31, 2020, as part of a global tax strategy review, we determined that our European subsidiaries based in the Netherlands, which we acquired on September 30, 2019, had historically collected and remitted value added tax ("VAT") payments, which related to direct-to-consumer sales to other European Union ("EU") member states, directly to the Dutch tax authorities. In connection with our subsidiaries' payment of VAT to Dutch tax authorities rather than other EU member states, the German government has commenced a criminal investigation, which could result in penalties; other jurisdictions could commence such investigations as well. We have performed an analysis of the VAT overpayments to the Dutch tax authorities, which we expect will be refunded to us, and VAT payable to other EU member states, including potential fines and penalties. Based on this analysis, we recorded a VAT payable of approximately $9.9 million within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" and VAT receivable of approximately $4.4 million within "Other current assets" in our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020.

Pursuant to the purchase and sale agreement by which we acquired our European subsidiaries, the sellers are required to indemnify us against certain specified matters and losses, including any and all liabilities, claims, penalties and costs incurred or sustained by us in connection with non-compliance with tax laws in relation to activities of the sellers. The indemnity is limited to an amount equal to the purchase price under the purchase and sale agreement. Furthermore, we are the beneficiary to a bank guarantee in the amount of approximately $0.9 million for claims for which we are entitled to indemnification under the purchase and sale agreement. The bank guarantee has an expiration date of October 1, 2021. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2020, we recognized an indemnification asset of approximately $0.9 million within "Other current assets" using the loss recovery model, as management believes that amounts covered by the bank guarantee are probable of recovery.

Management intends to pursue recovery of all additional losses from the sellers to the full extent of the indemnification provisions of the purchase and sale agreement, however, the collectability of such additional indemnification amounts may be subject to litigation and may be affected by the credit risk of indemnifying parties, and are therefore subject to significant uncertainties as to the amount and timing of recovery. Therefore, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a charge of approximately $4.5 million within "general and administrative expenses" in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represents the difference between the VAT payable and the VAT receivable and indemnification asset recorded as of December 31, 2020.

We establish VAT receivables in jurisdictions where VAT paid exceeds VAT collected and are recoverable through the filing of refund claims. Our VAT receivable balance as of December 31, 2020 relates to refund claims with the Dutch tax authorities. We intend to voluntarily disclose VAT owed to the relevant tax authorities in the EU member states and believe in doing so we will reduce our liability for penalties and interest. Nonetheless, we may incur expenses in future periods related to such matters, including litigation costs and other expenses to defend our position. The outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.
Treasury Stock
Treasury Stock

When Class A common stock is acquired for purposes other than formal or constructive retirement, the purchase price of the acquired stock is recorded in a separate treasury stock account, which is separately reported as a reduction of stockholders' equity.

When Class A common stock is retired or purchased for formal or constructive retirement, the purchase price is initially recorded as a reduction to the par value of the shares repurchased, with any excess purchase price over par value recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital related to the series of shares repurchased and any remainder excess purchase price recorded as a reduction to retained earnings. If the purchase price exceeds the amounts allocated to par value and additional paid-in capital related to the series of shares repurchased and retained earnings, the remainder is allocated to additional paid-in capital related to other series of shares.
Net Loss Per Share Net Loss Per ShareBasic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to us by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by giving effect to all potential weighted average dilutive shares including stock options, restricted Common Units granted as equity-based compensation, and Common Units exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock for the periods after the closing of the IPO. The dilutive effect of outstanding awards, if any, is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method or if-converted method, as applicable.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which, among other things, requires lessees to recognize substantially all leases on their balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard establishes a right of use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases are classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The new standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019.
We adopted Topic 842 utilizing the modified retrospective adoption method with an effective date of January 1, 2019. We made the election to not apply the recognition requirements in Topic 842 to short-term leases (i.e., leases of 12 months or less) for all classes of underlying assets. Instead, we recognize lease payments in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. In addition, in accordance with Topic 842, variable lease payments in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred are not included in the recognition of a lease liability or right-of-use asset. We elected to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component for all underlying classes of assets with lease and non-lease components. The adoption of Topic 842 resulted in the recognition of operating lease liabilities of approximately $2.6 million and operating ROU assets of $2.4 million, primarily related to warehouses, retail stores, regional offices, and machinery and equipment. There was no cumulative effect adjustment to beginning Members' Deficit on the consolidated balance sheet. The accounting for our finance leases remained substantially unchanged, as finance lease liabilities and their corresponding ROU assets were already recorded on the consolidated balance sheets under the previous guidance. The adoption of Topic 842 did not have a significant effect on our results from operations or cash flows. See “Note 5—Leases” for additional disclosures required by Topic 842.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation: Improvements to Nonemployee Share Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2018-07 provides guidance on accounting for equity-based awards issued to nonemployees. The standard was effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2019. Adoption of the new standard did not impact our consolidated financial statements as we did not have any outstanding equity-based compensation awards granted to non-employees prior to the adoption of this ASU.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. The ASU expands and enhances hedge accounting to become more closely aligned with an entity’s risk management activities through hedging strategies. The ASU provides changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results in the financial statements and creates more transparency and makes the economic results presented in the financial statements easier to understand. In addition, the new guidance makes certain targeted improvements to ease the application of accounting guidance relative to hedge effectiveness. The standard was effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We adopted this ASU prospectively beginning July 1, 2019 and applied the guidance provided by the ASU to the derivative instrument discussed in "Note 4—Fair Value of Financial Instruments”. Adoption of the new standard did not impact our consolidated financial statements as we did not hold any derivative instruments to which this new ASU was applicable in earlier reporting periods.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. We adopted this standard prospectively beginning January 1, 2020. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2022 for filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC's definition. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This update will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this guidance effective January 1, 2021, and do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarifies the interaction of accounting for equity securities under Topic 321, the accounting for equity investments in Topic 323, and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options in Topic 815. We will adopt this guidance effective January 1, 2021 and do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This ASU provides optional expedient an exceptions for applying generally accepted accounting principles to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. In response to the concerns about structural risks of interbank offered rates and, particularly, the risk of cessation of the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), regulators in several jurisdictions around the world have undertaken reference rate reform initiatives to identify alternative reference rates that are more observable or transaction-based and less susceptible to manipulation. The ASU provides companies with optional guidance to ease the potential accounting burden associated with transitioning away from reference rates that are expected to be discontinued. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, which clarifies certain provisions in Topic 848, if elected by an entity, apply to derivative instruments that use an interest rate for margining, discounting, or contract price alignment that is modified as a result of reference rate reform. The amendments in these ASUs are effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. We are still evaluating the effect of adopting this guidance.