Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. As such, the information included in this Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. The condensed consolidated results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022, or any other future annual or interim period. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts or balances to conform to the presentation adopted in the current year.
Principles of Consolidation
Our condensed consolidated financial statements include our accounts, the accounts of the Operating Company, and the accounts of the Operating Company's consolidated subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Our principal sources of liquidity at March 31, 2022 consisted of cash on hand, future cash anticipated to be generated from operations, and our ATM Program described below.

We have an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the "Shelf Registration Statement") and may opportunistically conduct securities offerings from time to time in order to meet our liquidity needs. However, we may be unable to access the capital markets because of current market volatility and the performance of our stock price.
In August 2021, we established an "at-the-market" equity offering program (the "ATM Program") that provides for the sale of shares of our Class A common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50 million, from time to time, through Cowen and Company, LLC ("Cowen"), as the sales agent. Net proceeds from sales of our shares of Class A common stock under the ATM Program are expected to be used for working capital and general corporate purposes. Since the launch of the ATM program in August 2021 and through March 31, 2022, we sold 13,535,970 shares of our Class A common stock under the ATM Program, which generated gross proceeds of approximately $10.4 million and paid fees to the sales agent of approximately $0.3 million. In connection with the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (the “2021 Annual Report”) with the SEC on March 31, 2022, the ATM Program became subject to the offering limits set forth in General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 ("Instruction I.B.6") because our public float was less than $75 million. The ATM Program was subsequently amended on April 18, 2022 to reflect the Instruction I.B.6 limitations. For so long as our public float is less than $75 million, the aggregate market value of the shares of Class A common stock sold by us pursuant to Instruction I.B.6 during any twelve consecutive months may not exceed one-third of our public float.

In December 2021, we entered into the Bridge Loan with Aaron LoCascio, our co-founder, former Chief Executive Officer and President, and a current director of the Company, in which Mr. LoCascio provided us with a loan in the principal amount of $8.0 million. Accrued interest at a rate of 15.0% is due monthly, and principal amount is due in full in June 2022. The Bridge Loan is secured by a continuing security interest in all of our assets and properties whether then or thereafter existing or required, including our inventory and receivables (as defined under the Universal Commercial Code) and includes negative covenants restricting our ability to incur further indebtedness and engage in certain asset dispositions until the earlier of June 30, 2022 or the Bridge Loan has been fully repaid.

We are in the process of securing an asset backed loan to assist us with working capital needs. However, we can provide no assurances as to the timing of our entry into this loan or that we will enter into it at all. We believe that our cash on hand, combined with our ability to access the capital markets, will be sufficient to fund our working capital and capital expenditure requirements, as well as our debt repayments and other liquidity requirements associated with our existing operations, for at least the next 12 months.
Use of Estimates
Conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts in our condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical information and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments in several areas. Such areas include, but are not limited to: the collectability of accounts receivable; the allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventory; the realizability of deferred tax assets; the fair value of goodwill; the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements; the useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment; the calculation of our VAT taxes receivable and VAT taxes, fines, and penalties payable; our loss contingencies, including our TRA liability; and the valuation and assumptions underlying equity-based compensation. These estimates are based on management's knowledge about current events and expectations about actions we may undertake in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") a global pandemic. We expect uncertainties around our key accounting estimates to continue to evolve depending on the duration and degree of impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including the possible resurgence of new strains. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information emerges, and such changes are recognized or disclosed in our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Voluntary Change in Accounting Principle
During the first quarter of 2022, we made a voluntary change in accounting principle to classify outbound shipping and handling costs associated with the distribution of products to our customers as a component of "general and administrative" costs within our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. These costs were previously recorded as a component of "cost of sales" within our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. We made the voluntary change in accounting principle because we believe the classification of outbound shipping and handling costs within "general and administrative" costs better reflects the selling effort and enhances the comparability of our financial statements with many of our industry peers. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, the change has been reflected in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss through retrospective application as follows:
For the three months ended March 31, 2021
(in thousands) Prior to Change Effect of Change As Adjusted
Cost of sales $ 26,696  $ (1,242) $ 25,454 
Gross profit $ 7,313  $ 1,242  $ 8,555 
General and administrative $ 8,339  $ 1,242  $ 9,581 
Total operating expenses $ 15,253  $ 1,242  $ 16,495 
Segment Reporting
We manage our global business operations through our operating and reportable business segments. Due to our recent merger with KushCo, we reassessed and updated our operating segments. Therefore, beginning with the fourth quarter of 2021, we determined we had following two reportable operating business segments: (1) Industrial Goods, which largely comprises KushCo's legacy operations across the United States and Canada, and (2) Consumer Goods, which largely comprises Greenlane's legacy operations across the United States, Canada, and Europe. Our reportable segments have been identified based on how our chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), which is a committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and our Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), manage our business, make resource allocation and operating decisions, and evaluate operating performance. These changes in operating segments align with how we manage our business beginning with the fourth quarter of 2021. Segment disclosures within this Form 10-Q have been retrospectively restated to reflect the change in segments. See “Note 12—Segment Reporting.”
Revenue Recognition
Revenue under bill-and-hold arrangements was $0 and $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Storage fees charged to customers for bill-and-hold arrangements are recognized as invoiced. Such fees were not significant for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Our liability for returns, which is included within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.9 million and $1.0 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The recoverable cost of merchandise estimated to be returned by customers, which is included within "Other current assets" in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $0.2 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
For the three months ended March 31, 2022, one customer represented approximately 16% of our net sales. No single customer represented more than 10% of our net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2022, three  customers represented approximately 17%, 10%, and 10% of accounts receivable, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, two customers represented approximately 13% and 11% of accounts receivable, respectively.
Value Added Taxes

During the third quarter of 2020, as part of a global tax strategy review, we determined that our European subsidiaries based in the Netherlands, which we acquired on September 30, 2019, had historically collected and remitted value added tax ("VAT") payments, which related to direct-to-consumer sales to other European Union ("EU") member states, directly to the Dutch tax authorities. In connection with our subsidiaries' payment of VAT to Dutch tax authorities rather than other EU member states, we may become subject to civil or criminal enforcement actions in certain EU jurisdictions, which could result in penalties.

We performed an analysis of the VAT overpayments to the Dutch tax authorities, which we expected to be refunded to us, and VAT payable to other EU member states, including potential fines and penalties. Based on this analysis, we recorded VAT payable of approximately $1.0 million and $2.5 million relating to this matter within "Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.

Pursuant to the purchase and sale agreement by which we acquired our European subsidiaries, the sellers are required to indemnify us against certain specified matters and losses, including any and all liabilities, claims, penalties and costs incurred or sustained by us in connection with non-compliance with tax laws in relation to activities of the sellers. The indemnity (or indemnification receivable) is limited to an amount equal to the purchase price under the purchase and sale agreement. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recognized a gain of approximately $1.8 million within "general and administrative expenses" in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represented the partial reversal of a charge previously recognized based on the difference between the VAT payable and the VAT receivable and indemnification asset, as the indemnification asset became probable of recovery based on the reduction in our previously estimated VAT liability for penalties and interest based on our voluntary disclosure to, and ongoing settlement with, the relevant tax authorities in the EU member states.
Management intends to pursue recovery of all additional losses from the sellers to the full extent of the indemnification provisions of the purchase and sale agreement, however, the collectability of such additional indemnification amounts may be subject to litigation and may be affected by the credit risk of indemnifying parties, and are therefore subject to significant uncertainties as to the amount and timing of recovery.

As noted above, we have voluntarily disclosed VAT owed to several relevant tax authorities in the EU member states, and believe in doing so we will reduce our liability for penalties and interest. Nonetheless, we may incur expenses in future periods related to such matters, including litigation costs and other expenses to defend our position. The outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties. Refer to "Note 7—Commitments and Contingencies" for additional discussion regarding our contingencies.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances rather than as reductions to the amortized cost of the securities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2022 for filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC's definition. Early adoption is permitted. We do not believe the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides practical expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The expedients and exceptions provided by the amendments in this update apply only to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued as a result of reference rate reform. These amendments are not applicable to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into or evaluated after December 31, 2022. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, which clarified the scope and application of the original guidance. ASU No. 2020-04 and ASU No. 2021-01 are effective as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and may be applied to contract modifications and hedging relationships from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020. We are still evaluating the impact these standards will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which requires that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606, as if it had originated the contracts. Prior to this ASU, an acquirer generally recognizes contract assets acquired and contract liabilities assumed that arose from contracts with customers at fair value on the acquisition date. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The ASU is to be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendment (or if adopted early as of an interim period, as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of early application). We are still assessing this standard’s impact on our consolidated financial statements.